Enoch (Hebrew: חֲנוֹךְ ) (Arabic: : إدريس 'Idrīs) is a character that appears in the Book of Genesis and a figure in the Generations of Adam. Enoch is described as the greatx4 grandson of Adam (through Seth) (Genesis 5:3-18), the son of Jared, the father of Methuselah, and the great-grandfather of Noah. The text reads - uniquely in the Generations - that Enoch “walked with God: and he was not; for God took him“, (Genesis 5:22-29) suggesting he did not experience the mortal death ascribed to Adam's other descendants. Despite the brief descriptions of him, Enoch is one of the main two focal points for much of the 1st millennium BC Jewish mysticism, notably in the Book of Enoch. Additionally, Enoch is important in some Christian denominations: He is commemorated as one of the Holy Forefathers in the Calendar of Saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church and the Armenian Catholic Church on July 26. He also features in the Latter Day Saint movement.
Enoch appears in Genesis as the seventh of the ten pre - Deluge Patriarchs. Genesis claims that each of the pre - Flood Patriarchs lives for several centuries, has a son, lives more centuries, and then dies. The exception is Enoch, who does not experience death “for God took him.” Furthermore, Genesis 5:22-29 states that Enoch lived 365 years which is extremely short in the context of his peers.
The brief account of Enoch in Genesis 5 ends with the note that he “was not” and that “God took him.” The question of what became of Enoch puzzled later generations. The 3rd century translators who produced the Greek Septuagint rendered the phrase “God took him” with the Greek verb metatithemi (μετατίθημι) meaning moving from one place to another. The Sirach 44:16, from about the same period, states that “Enoch pleased God and was translated into paradise that he may give repentance to the nations.” The Greek word used here for paradise, 'paradeisos' (παραδεισος), was derived from an ancient Persian word meaning “enclosed garden“, and was used in the Septuagint to describe the Garden of Eden. Later, however, the term became synonymous for heaven, as is the case here.
Three extensive apocryphal works are attributed to Enoch. 1st Book of Enoch, or simply the Book of Enoch, an apocryphal book in the Ethiopic Bible that is usually dated between the third century BC and the first century AD. 2nd Book of Enoch, an apocryphal book in the Old Slavonic Bible usually dated to the first century AD. And the 3rd Book of Enoch, a Kabbalistic Rabbinic text in Hebrew usually dated to the fifth century AD. These recount how Enoch is taken up to Heaven and is appointed guardian of all the celestial treasures, chief of the archangels, and the immediate attendant on God’s throne. He is subsequently taught all secrets and mysteries and, with all the angels at his back, fulfils of his own accord whatever comes out of the mouth of God, executing His decrees. Much esoteric literature like the 3rd Book of Enoch identifies Enoch as the Metatron, the angel which communicates God's word. In consequence, Enoch was seen, by this literature, and the Rabbinic kabbala of Jewish mysticism, as having been the one which communicated God's revelation to Moses, in particular, the dictator of the Book of Jubilees.
In classical Rabbinical literature, there are divergent opinions of Enoch. After Christianity and Judaism had separated, the prevailing view regarding Enoch was that of Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, which thought of Enoch as a pious man, taken to Heaven, and receiving the title of Safra rabba (Great scribe). However, while Christianity was separating from Judaism, the Jewish view of Enoch was he was the only pious man of his time and was taken away before he would become corrupted. According to Rashi (from Genesis Rabba), “Enoch was a righteous man, but he could easily be swayed to return to do evil. Therefore, the Holy One, blessed be He, hastened and took him away and caused him to die before his time. For this reason, Scripture changed (the wording) in (the account of) his demise and wrote, ‘and he was no longer’ in the world to complete his years.” Among the minor Midrashim, esoteric attributes of Enoch are expanded upon. In the Sefer Hekalot, Rabbi Ishmael is described as having visited the 7th Heaven, where he meets Enoch, who claims that earth had, in his time, been corrupted by the demons Shammazai, and Azazel, and so Enoch was taken to Heaven to prove that God was not cruel. Similar traditions are recorded in Sirach. Later elaborations of this interpretation treated Enoch as having been a pious ascetic, who, called to mix with others, preached repentance, and gathered (despite the small number of people on Earth) a vast collection of disciples, to the extent that he was proclaimed king. Under his wisdom, peace is said to have reigned on earth, to the extent that he is summoned to Heaven to rule over the sons of God. In a parallel with Elijah, in sight of a vast crowd begging him to stay, he ascends to Heaven on a horse. Enoch is often confused with Enos. However, Enos is grandson to Adam (Genesis 5:5-6), and great-great-grandfather of Enoch (Genesis 5:9-18).
The New Testament contains three references to Enoch. The first is a brief mention in Luke's genealogy of the ancestors of Jesus (Luke 3:37).The second mention is where the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews writes, “By faith Enoch was transferred, that he should not see death, and was not found, because God had transferred him; for before his transference he had the witness that he had pleased God well.” (Hebrews 11:5).The third mention is in the Epistle of Jude (1:14-15) where the author attributes to “Enoch, the Seventh from Adam” a passage unknown in the Old Testament. The quotation is believed by most modern scholars to be taken from 1 Enoch 1:9 which exists in Greek, in Ethiopic, as part of the Ethiopian Orthodox canon, and also in Aramaic among the Dead Sea Scrolls. Though the same scholars recognize that 1 Enoch 1:9 itself is a midrash of the words of Moses “he came from the ten thousands of holy ones” from Deuteronomy 33:2. The introductory phrase “Enoch, the Seventh from Adam” is also found in 1 Enoch (1 En. 60:8), though not in the Old Testament. In the New Testament this Enoch prophesies “to“ ungodly men, that God shall come with His holy ones to judge and convict them (Jude 1:14-15).
Early Christianity contains various traditions concerning the “translation” of Enoch.
Regarding the quotation in Jude, most of early Christianity considered it an independent quotation pre-dating the flood. Regarding the Book of Enoch itself Origen, Jerome and Augustin mention it, but as of no authority. Justin, Athenagoras, Irenaeus, Clemens Alexandrinus, Lactantius, and others borrowed an opinion out of this book of Enoch, that the angels had connection with the daughters of men, of whom they had offspring (‘the giants of the past‘). Tertullian, in several places, speaks of this book with esteem; and would persuade us, that it was preserved by Noah during the deluge. According to the Figurists (a group of Jesuit missionaries mainly led by Joachim Bouvet into China at the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century and based on ideas of Matteo Ricci 1552 to 1610), Fu Xi, in China's ancient history is actually Enoch.
Enoch is not counted as a saint in Roman Catholic tradition, though Enoch has a saints day, July 26, in the Armenian Apostolic Church. The “St. Enoch” in the place name St. Enoch's Square, Glasgow, is a corruption from the site of a medieval chapel to Saint Teneu, the legendary mother of Saint Mungo, and unconnected with Enoch. Enoch is revered in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, and the Enochic texts Jubilees and 1 Enoch regarded as the 13th and 14th books, respectively, of the Tewahedo Old Testament canon. Most churches, including the Catholic, Greek Orthodox, and Protestant churches, do not accept the books.
Some Evangelical commentators consider Enoch to be one of the Two Witnesses in the Book of Revelation due to the fact that he did not die according to Genesis 5:24. Two televangelists holding this view, for example, are Pastor John Hagee of Christians for Israel and Hebrew Roots Bible teacher, Perry Stone.
Among the Latter Day Saint movement and particularly in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, Enoch is viewed as having founded an exceptionally righteous city, named Zion, in the midst of an otherwise wicked world. This view is encountered in the Mormon scriptures, the Pearl of Great Price and the Doctrine and Covenants, which states that not only Enoch, but the entire peoples of the city of Zion, were “taken off this earth without death”, because of their piety. (Zion is defined as “the pure in heart” and this city of Zion will return to the earth at the Second Coming of Jesus Christ) The Doctrine and Covenants further states that Enoch prophesied that one of his descendants, Noah, and his family, would survive a Great Flood and thus carry on the human race and preserve the Gospel. The Book of Moses in the Pearl of Great Price has several chapters that give an account of Enoch's preaching, visions and conversations with God. In these same chapters are details concerning the wars, violence and natural disasters in Enoch's day, and notable miracles performed by Enoch. The Book of Moses is itself an excerpt from Joseph Smith’s translation of the Bible, which is published in full, complete with these chapters concerning Enoch, by Community of Christ, as the Holy Scriptures/Inspired Version of the Bible, where it appears as part of the Book of Genesis. D&C 104:24 (CofC) / 107:48-49 (LDS) states that Adam ordained Enoch to the higher priesthood (now called the Melchizedek, after the great high priest) at age 25, that he was 65 when Adam blessed him, and he lived 365 years after that until he was translated, so making him 430 years old when that occurred.
Additionally in LDS theology, Enoch is implied to be the scribe who recorded Adam’s blessings and prophecies at Adam-ondi-Ahman, as recorded in D&C 107:53-57 (LDS) / D&C 104:29b (CofC).
In the Quran, Enoch is sometimes identified with Idris, as for example by the History of Al-Tabari and the Meadows of Gold. The Quran contains two references to Idris; in Surah Al-Anbiya (The Prophets) verse number 85, and in Surah Maryam (Mary) verses 56-57. (The Prophets, 21:85): “And the same blessing was bestowed upon Ismail and Idris and Zul-Kifl, because they all practized fortitude.” (Mary 19:56 - 57) : “And remember Idris in the Book; he was indeed very truthful, a Prophet. And We lifted him to a lofty station“. Idris is closely linked in Muslim tradition with the origin of writing and other technical arts of civilization, including the study of astronomical phenomena, both of which Enoch is credited with in the Testament of Abraham . Nonetheless, even aside from the identification of Idris and Enoch, many Muslims still honor Enoch as one of the earliest prophets, regardless of whether they equate him with Idris or not. Thus, views on Enoch are divided into two groups: The first believes that Enoch and Idris are one and the same. The second believes that Enoch and Idris are two different prophets.
It is widely believed among ancient astronaut theorists that Enoch, like so many other biblical figures, was a space traveler and the leader of the Anunnaki. That Enoch is responsible for the perseverance of man as well as a teacher, educating him, and giving him the knowledge he sought while a slave to the master race to mine for gold and other earthly minerals. Where this master race is from is still open for debate. Some say the Sirius galaxy, while others claim the Sagittarius galaxy. The planet we now call Mars, was also being mined of resources.
Source: Wikipedia - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enoch
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