Friday, November 28, 2014

The Ugly Truth: American Politics

The democrats had their chance and blew it. They blew it big time. The reason they blew it was because they showed their cards too early, and the American people finally saw for the first time, without a doubt, that democrats are pushing for "China-Law". We don't want that.

After the handful of lies from the previous Bush administration, the democrats followed it up with a TON of lies, one right after another, and cover ups. NSA spying, IRS targeting, Benghazi, Veterans Administration, Affordable Care Act (otherwise known as "Obamacare" and the lies it took to sell it to the American people), ISIS, Dems support for terrorist organization known as "Hamas", higher taxes (most notable in New York and California), the lies about - and the cover ups of all these things mentioned. And now, the controversial comments made by Jonathan Gruber and the insults of the American people by calling them "stupid", and again, the constant lies from Pelosi and Obama about Gruber's involvement in "Obamacare" and their basic knowledge of who Gruber is. Just constantly insulting the American people's intelligence. We are tired of it!

And now, the arrogant pardoning of 5 million criminals.

In 2016, more democrats will lose seats in congress and the senate. They will lose the White House too. And it will be at least 20 years before the democrats get another chance.

Hope and change was a ruse. Instead of taking the ball and getting stuff done, the democrats settled on finger pointing and blame of the previous administration. All hope was lost. The only changes made were bad. The "most transparent administration in history" promise made by Obama turned into the most "non-transparent administration" of all time. The lies, the cover ups, the insults towards American citizens, the lawlessness, the "better than everyone else" attitude by the democrats has all caught up to them. Not only do they refuse this truth, they can't even admit it. They are going to go down in flames by doing what they do best, lie and deny they did so. The recent mid-term elections told us this. Those who did not show up at the polls were those who voted for "hope and change" ..... and didn't get it.

The truth is, America will never get hope and change. It's too late. We can not get on the right track because nobody is willing to undo the wrongs of the past 15 years to get us back on track. Not republicans and certainly not the democrats. Until we undo the wrongs of the past, American futures are grim at best. That is the ugly truth.

Thursday, November 27, 2014

Saturday, November 22, 2014

Anne Bonny: The Pirates

Anne Bonny (c. 1700 - c. 1782) was an Irish woman who became a famous pirate, operating in the Caribbean. What little is known of her life comes largely from Charles Johnson's A General History of the Pyrates.

Anne Bonny was born around the year 1700. Her birth name was Anne Cormac, and her birthplace was Kinsale, County Cork, Ireland. She was the daughter of a servant woman, Mary Brennan, and Brennan's employer, lawyer William Cormac. Official records and contemporary letters dealing with her life are scarce and most modern knowledge stems from Charles Johnson's A General History of the Pyrates (a contemporary collection of pirate biographies, the first edition accurate, the second much embellished.)

Bonny's family travelled to the new world very early on in her life; at first the family had a rough start in their new home. Her mother died shortly after they arrived in North America. Her father attempted to establish himself as an attorney, but did not do well. Eventually, Bonny's father joined the more profitable merchant business and accumulated a substantial fortune. It is recorded she had red hair and was considered a "good catch", but may have had a fiery temper; at aged 13 she supposedly stabbed a servant girl with a table knife. She married a poor sailor and small-time pirate named James Bonny. James Bonny hoped to win possession of his father-in-law's estate, but Anne was disowned by her father.

There is a story that Bonny set fire to her father's plantation in retaliation; but no evidence exists in support. However, it is known that sometime between 1714 and 1718, she and James Bonny moved to Nassau, on New Providence Island; known at that time as a sanctuary for English pirates called the 'Pirates' republic'. Many inhabitants received a "King's Pardon" or otherwise evaded the law. It is also recorded that after the arrival of Governor Woodes Rogers in the summer of 1718, James Bonny became an informant for the governor.

While in the Bahamas, Bonny began mingling with pirates in the local taverns. She met Jack "Calico Jack" Rackham, captain of the pirate sloop Revenge, and Rackham became her lover. They had a child in Cuba, who eventually took the name of Cunningham. Many different theories state that he was left with his family or simply abandoned. Bonny rejoined Rackham and continued the pirate life, having divorced her husband and marrying Rackham while at sea. Bonny and Rackham escaped to live together as pirates. Bonny, Rackham, and Mary Read stole the ship Revenge, then at anchor in Nassau harbour, and put out to sea. Rackham and the two women recruited a new crew. Rackham's crew spent a lot of time in Jamaica and the surrounding area. Over the next several months, they enjoyed success, capturing many, albeit smaller, vessels and bringing in an abundance of treasure. Bonny did not disguise herself as a man aboard the Revenge as is often claimed. She took part in combat alongside the men, and the accounts of her exploits present her as competent, effective in combat, and respected by her shipmates. Her name and gender were known to all from the start. Governor Rogers had named them in a "Wanted Pirates" circular published in the continent's only newspaper, The Boston News-Letter. Although Bonny was historically renowned as a female Caribbean pirate, she never commanded a ship of her own.

In October 1720, Rackham and his crew were attacked by a "King's ship", a sloop captained by Jonathan Barnet under a commission from the Governor of Jamaica. Most of Rackham's pirates did not put up much resistance as many of them were too drunk to fight; other sources indicate it was at night and most of them were asleep; however, Read and Bonny fought fiercely and managed to hold off Barnet's troops for a short time. Rackham and his crew were taken to Jamaica, where they were convicted and sentenced by the Governor of Jamaica to be hanged. According to Johnson, Bonny's last words to the imprisoned Rackham were: "sorry to see you there, but if you'd fought like a man, you would not have been hang'd like a Dog."[

 After being sentenced, Read and Bonny both "pleaded their bellies": asking for mercy because they were pregnant.

In accordance with English common law, both women received a temporary stay of execution until they gave birth. Read died in prison, most likely from a fever, though it has been alleged that she died during childbirth.

There is no historical record of Bonny's release or of her execution. This has fed speculation that her father ransomed her; that she might have returned to her husband, or even that she resumed a life of piracy under a new identity.

Sources: Wikipedia

This work released through CC 3.0 BY-SA - Creative Commons

Monday, November 17, 2014

For The Love Of Music Picture Page

If you love music ... then let it show!

(Play video and enjoy the GIF's.)

Keep on singing and keep on dancing.

Wednesday, November 12, 2014

Mandy Moore: Teen Idol

I have to go on record and say that of all the teen idols that have come and gone, Mandy Moore has been my favorite. And no, it's not because she is perhaps one of the most beautiful girls I have ever laid eyes on.

Well, not JUST because of that.

The fact is, she is the only teen idol whom I have never heard regretted her choices that led her to be a teen idol in the first place. While Christina Aguilera was quoted as saying that "Jeanie In A Bottle", and many other of her early songs, were not the real "her", Mandy Moore seemed to embrace her bubblegum style from her early works. The only other singer/teen idol that I ever heard embrace their young teen cheesiness was Debbie Gibson.

Also, Mandy Moore did not "sell out" by taking off half her clothes to prove how "sexy" she was. The truth is, taking off your clothes (or even half of them) isn't being "sexy", it's being "slutty". With Mandy Moore, what you see is what you get. And that's more than enough. Mandy seemed to hold true to what she believes in and to her personality. For that, she has earned my respect. Her music may have evolved, but she didn't have to evolve it by dancing naked in her videos, or singing about how many guys want to do her. 

Still, those Mandy eyes are all the sexy any guy can handle - if you ask me - and her natural beauty shines with every wink and smile that she hands out. I also happen to own just about every movie she ever did, except her voice over work. But she made me cry with her "Walk To Remember" film. 

Amanda Leigh "Mandy" Moore (born April 10, 1984) is an American singer-songwriter, actress, and fashion designer. Raised in Florida, Moore first came to prominence with her 1999 debut single, "Candy", which peaked at number 41 on the Billboard Hot 100. Her subsequent album, So Real, went on to receive a Platinum certification from the RIAA. Two more singles, "Walk Me Home" and "So Real", were released but failed to have the success of their predecessor. Her 2000 single, "I Wanna Be with You", became her first Top 40 hit in the US, peaking at number 24 on the Hot 100 chart. The parent album of the same name, was released that same year to generally mixed reviews. The album went on to achieve Gold certification. After revealing her displeasure with her early works, Moore's self-titled third album, Mandy Moore (2001), featured a change of sound that drifted away from her "bubblegum pop" roots. The album spawned the single "In My Pocket", which became her third Top 20 hit in Australia. The album itself was her final album to be certified by the RIAA, receiving a Gold certification.

In 2003, Moore released her fourth studio album, Coverage, featuring covers of classic 1970s songs. Following the album's release, Moore parted ways with her record label, due to creative differences. The split prompted the label to release the compilation albums The Best of Mandy Moore (2004) and Candy (2005), both of which have sold an estimated 100,000 copies to date. Moore did not return to music until the release of her 2007 album Wild Hope, which failed to have much success. To date, the album has sold an estimated 200,000 copies, and failed to receive an RIAA certification. Similarly, both of the album's singles failed to chart worldwide. In 2009, Moore released her sixth studio album, Amanda Leigh, which peaked at number 25 on the Billboard 200 and sold an estimated 100,000 copies. In 2012, Moore confirmed that she was working on her seventh studio album, currently slated for a 2014 release. As of 2009, Moore has sold more than 12.5 million albums worldwide, according to Billboard. In 2012, Moore was ranked #96 on VH1's list of "100 Greatest Women in Music", as well as #63 on their Sexiest Artists of All Time List.

Aside from her musical career, Moore has also branched out into acting. She made her film debut in the 2001 film Dr. Dolittle 2, though it was only a minor voice role. Later that year, she appeared as Lana in the comedy film The Princess Diaries, alongside Anne Hathaway. She had her first starring role in the 2002 romantic film A Walk to Remember, which was based on the Nicholas Sparks book. Between 2003 and 2006, Moore appeared in various films, including Chasing Liberty, Saved!, and How to Deal. She later appeared in the 2006 film American Dreamz, which was both a critical and financial failure. The film failed to make back its $17 million budget, and debuted at number 9 at the box office. The following year, Moore appeared in the romantic comedy Because I Said So, alongside Diane Keaton. The film was negatively received by critics, but was a financial success, earning over $69 million worldwide at the box office. In 2010, Moore portrayed Rapunzel in the animated film Tangled, in which she performed the song "I See the Light"; the song won a Grammy for Best Song Written for Visual Media.

Amanda Leigh Moore was born on April 10, 1984 in Nashua, New Hampshire. Her mother, Stacy (née Friedman), is a former news reporter who once worked for the Orlando Sentinel, and her father, Donald "Don" Moore, is a pilot for American Airlines. Moore's father is of Irish and Cherokee descent, and her mother is of half-English and half-Jewish ancestry. She is the middle of three children with an older brother, Scott and a younger brother Kyle. When she was only two months old, Moore and her family moved to Orlando, Florida due to her father's job.

Moore became interested in acting and singing at a young age, and cited her grandmother, a dancer in the theater district of The West End of London, as one of her inspirations. Moore stated "My parents thought It was just a phase I'd grow out of. But I stuck to it and begged them for acting lessons, for voice lessons." Moore began starring in numerous local productions, as well as performing the National Anthem at numerous Orlando based events. She was only twelve years old when she attended the Stagedoor Manor theater camp, where other celebrities including actress Natalie Portman had once attended. Production director Konnie Kittrell said of Moore "She was a quiet, sweet girl", and stated that even though she earned numerous solos "She wasn't a spotlight seeker." When Moore was thirteen, she began working on music by herself. One day, while working in the studio, she was overheard by a FedEx delivery man, who had a friend in A&R at Epic Records. The delivery man, named Victor, later sent this friend a copy of Moore's unfinished demo, and Moore went on to sign with the label.

Moore branched into the fashion world in 2005 with her own fashion line named Mblem., a brand of contemporary knitwear and cashmere. One of her aims was to provide clothing for taller women (Moore is 5 feet 10 inches.) In February 2009, Moore announced that the line would be shutting down, but that she hoped to reenter the fashion world again under different circumstances in the future.

Moore has worked with and highlighted nonprofit organization Population Services International (PSI), and its subsidiary, Five & Alive, which addresses health crises facing children under the age of five and their families. Moore has served as the Honorary Chairperson of the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society's division on awareness for youth. She served as a spokesperson by helping young people be aware of the seriousness of leukemia and lymphoma. She also serves as the spokesperson for Cervical Cancer Awareness Month, held every January. In addition, to increase cervical cancer awareness, Moore teamed up with Dr. Yvonne Collins, The Gynecologic Cancer Foundation (GCF), and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). Moore is the ambassador for the UN Foundations’s Nothing But Nets malaria prevention campaign. Moore is also the spokesperson for Dove's self-esteem movement and the "Women who should be famous" campaign.

At the start of her career, Moore was known for her bubblegum pop sound, which she revealed was not the type of music she prefers, saying, "[The record company] was like, 'Here are your songs.' I was like, 'Hi, I'm fourteen. I'll do anything.' Those albums are why I'm here today, but god damn, I should give a refund to anyone who bought my first record."

Moore has often been praised by music critics for branching off and making her own music. Billboard stated, "She has successfully dropped all the tacky accoutrements of her past and turned into a sweet, classy singer-songwriter whose charms are readily apparent." AllMusic claimed, "Moore smoothly evolved from adolescent starlet to mature songwriter, continuing to distance herself from the scene that had launched her career one decade prior."

Moore has noted that she was inspired by television and film as a child. She has also stated, "I’m stuck in the ’70s. I think I’ll always have that kind of influence. Joni Mitchell, Todd Rundgren, Harry Nilsson, McCartney – that’s the sort of stuff I’m really inspired and influenced by." Moore has also revealed how her husband, Ryan Adams, has had a huge influence on her music, and that he has begun to introduce her to heavy metal. "Not that I can necessarily differentiate between speed metal and black metal…" she said. "I'll tolerate it, but I turn it down.

Moore has said that she has been influenced by female singers such as Alanis Morissette, Blondie, Carole King, Debbie Gibson, Janet Jackson, Madonna, Mariah Carey, Shania Twain, Joni Mitchell and Tiffany.

Moore dated tennis player Andy Roddick for a little over a year from 2003 to 2004. In 2007, Moore dated Adam Goldstein, better known as DJ AM, for two months but with whom she remained close after breaking up. In 2008, Moore flew to be by Goldstein's side while he was in hospital after suffering burns from the 2008 South Carolina Learjet 60 crash.

In 2008, Moore began dating singer-songwriter Ryan Adams. They became engaged in February 2009 and married on March 10, 2009, in Savannah, Georgia.

There has been, and there will continue to be, many young, beautiful and talented girls to compete for the commodity of fame, but none will find it easy to match the beauty, talent and grace of my Mandy Moore. While many girls work to be called the queen of rock, queen of pop, queen of country, queen of trampville, or whatever, Mandy Moore settled on just being a queen. IMO!

Sources: Wikipedia

This work released through CC 3.0 BY-SA - Creative Commons

Friday, November 7, 2014

Flag Of India

The National Flag of India is a horizontal rectangular tricolour of deep saffron, white and India green; with the Ashoka Chakra, a 24-spoke wheel, in navy blue at its centre. It was adopted in its present form during a meeting of the Constituent Assembly held on 22 July 1947, when it became the official flag of the Dominion of India. The flag was subsequently retained as that of the Republic of India. In India, the term "tricolour" (Hindi: तिरंगा, Tirangā) almost always refers to the Indian national flag. The flag is based on the Swaraj flag, a flag of the Indian National Congress designed by Pingali Venkayya

The flag, by law, is to be made of khadi, a special type of hand-spun cloth of cotton, or silk made popular by Mahatma Gandhi. The manufacturing process and specifications for the flag are laid out by the Bureau of Indian Standards. The right to manufacture the flag is held by the Khadi Development and Village Industries Commission, who allocate it to the regional groups. As of 2009, the Karnataka Khadi Gramodyoga Samyukta Sangha was the sole manufacturer of the flag.

Usage of the flag is governed by the Flag Code of India and other laws relating to the national emblems. The original code prohibited use of the flag by private citizens except on national days such as the Independence day and the Republic Day. In 2002, on hearing an appeal from a private citizen, Naveen Jindal, the Supreme Court of India directed the Government of India to amend the code to allow flag usage by private citizens. Subsequently, the Union Cabinet of India amended the code to allow limited usage. The code was amended once more in 2005 to allow some additional use including adaptations on certain forms of clothing. The flag code also governs the protocol of flying the flag and its use in conjunction with other national and non-national flags.

Gandhi first proposed a flag to the Indian National Congress in 1921. The flag was designed by Pingli Venkayya. In the centre was a traditional spinning wheel, symbolising Gandhi's goal of making Indians self-reliant by fabricating their own clothing. The design was then modified to include a white stripe in the centre for other religious communities, and provide a background for the spinning wheel. Subsequently, to avoid sectarian associations with the colour scheme, saffron, white and green were chosen for the three bands, representing courage and sacrifice, peace and truth, and faith and chivalry respectively.

A few days before India became independent on 15 August 1947, the specially constituted Constituent Assembly decided that the flag of India must be acceptable to all parties and communities. So, a modified version of the Swaraj flag was chosen; the tricolour remained the same saffron, white and green. However, the charkha was replaced by the Ashoka Chakra representing the eternal wheel of law.

A number of flags with varying designs were used in the period preceding the Indian Independence Movement by the rulers of different princely states; the idea of a single Indian flag was first raised by the British rulers of India after the rebellion of 1857, which resulted in the establishment of direct imperial rule. The first flag, whose design was based on western heraldic standards, were similar to the flags of other British colonies, including Canada and Australia; the blue banner included the Union Flag in the upper-left quadrant and a Star of India capped by the royal crown in the middle of the right half. To address the question of how the star conveyed "Indianness", Queen Victoria created the Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India to honour services to the empire by her Indian subjects. Subsequently, all the Indian princely states received flags with symbols based on the heraldic criteria of Europe including the right to fly defaced British red ensigns.

Display and usage of the flag is governed by the Flag Code of India, 2002 (successor to the Flag Code – India, the original flag code); the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950; and the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971 Insults to the national flag, including gross affronts or indignities to it, as well as using it in a manner so as to violate the provisions of the Flag Code, are punishable by law with imprisonment up to three years, or a fine, or both. Official regulation states that the flag must never touch the ground or water, or be used as a drapery in any form The flag may not be intentionally placed upside down, dipped in anything, or hold any objects other than flower petals before unfurling. No sort of lettering may be inscribed on the flag. When out in the open, the flag should always be flown between sunrise and sunset, irrespective of the weather conditions. Prior to 2009, the flag could be flown on a public building at night under special circumstances; currently, Indian citizens can fly the flag even at the night, subject to the restriction that the flag should be hoisted on a tall flagpole and be well-illuminated The flag should never be depicted, displayed or flown upside down. Tradition also states that when draped vertically, the flag should not merely be rotated 90 degrees, but also reversed. One "reads" a flag like the pages of a book, from top to bottom and from left to right, and after rotation the results should be the same. It is considered insulting to display the flag in a frayed or dirty state, and the same rule applies to the flagpoles and halyards used to hoist the flag, which should always be in a proper state of maintenance.

The rules regarding the correct methods to display the flag state that when two flags are fully spread out horizontally on a wall behind a podium, their hoists should be towards each other with the saffron stripes uppermost. If the flag is displayed on a short flagpole, this should be mounted at an angle to the wall with the flag draped tastefully from it. If two national flags are displayed on crossed staffs, the hoists must be towards each other and the flags must be fully spread out. The flag should never be used as a cloth to cover tables, lecterns, podiums or buildings, or be draped from railings. Whenever the flag is displayed indoors in halls at public meetings or gatherings of any kind, it should always be on the right (observers' left), as this is the position of authority. So when the flag is displayed next to a speaker in the hall or other meeting place, it must be placed on the speaker's right hand. When it is displayed elsewhere in the hall, it should be to the right of the audience. The flag should be displayed completely spread out with the saffron stripe on top. If hung vertically on the wall behind the podium, the saffron stripe should be to the left of the onlookers facing the flag with the hoist cord at the top.

The flag should be flown at half-mast as a sign of mourning. The decision to do so lies with the President of India, who also decides the period of such mourning. When the flag is to be flown at half mast, it must first be raised to the top of the mast and then slowly lowered. Only the Indian flag is flown half mast; all other flags remain at normal height. The flag is flown half-mast nationwide on the death of the president, Vice-president or prime minister. It is flown half-mast in New Delhi and the state of origin for the Speaker of the Lok Sabha, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and Union Ministers. On deaths of Governors, Lt. Governors and Chief Ministers, the flag is flown at half-mast in the respective states and union territories. The Indian flag cannot be flown at half-mast on Republic Day (26 January), Independence day (15 August), Gandhi Jayanti (2 October), National Week (6–13 April) or state formation anniversaries, except over buildings housing the body of the deceased dignitary. However, even in such cases, the flag must be raised to full-mast when the body is moved from the building. Observances of State mourning on the death of foreign dignitaries are governed by special instructions issued from the Ministry of Home Affairs in individual cases. However, in the event of death of either the Head of the State or Head of the Government of a foreign country, the Indian Mission accredited to that country may fly the national flag at half-mast. On occasions of state, military, central para-military forces funerals, the flag shall be draped over the bier or coffin with the saffron towards the head of the bier or coffin. The flag should not be lowered into the grave or burnt in the pyre.

Sources: Wikipedia

This work released through CC 3.0 BY-SA- Creative Commons

Sunday, November 2, 2014

College Football Playoff Fix: The SEC

You can try to find someone on this planet to convince me that this new college football playoff format was an attempt to include as many teams as possible for a chance to win a national football championship, but I doubt you will be successful. You see, I had my suspicions before the 2014 season began, and those suspicions are being verified as we speak.

And what were / are my suspicions? That in truth, this four team college football playoff format was put together to get as many SEC teams involved in the national championship hunt as possible.

For some odd reason, every nitwit and brain dead "expert" seems to think the SEC is the best conference in college football, and that every single team in it should play for the national championship. The thing is, college football has become biased towards the SEC for some reason.

Hey, they have good teams, don't get me wrong, but when was the last time you ever saw an SEC team go on the road in November or December to play in the cold and or snow? Or both? The answer is never, not since the 1970's perhaps. And let's face it, if they would ever pit the best SEC team against the best Big Ten team in an outdoor stadium in mid or late January, that SEC team is going to go down in flames! And for anyone to come on here and debate this, then answer me this, why don't they (NCAA) have championship games outdoors and in the cold elements?

Think about that for a while.

My guess is - the NCAA wants SEC teams involved in the football championship hunt every single year. Let them play every single game indoors or in warmer weather / drier fields and this way, it makes the SEC teams look better, meanwhile, Northern teams must play at least 1/4 of their games outdoors in the wintery elements. (Where you know they risk losing games.) Teams like Notre Dame, Ohio State, Michigan State, and Wisconsin. Teams that every now and then put together a roster that can make a run for a national championship - only to get eliminated at the end of year in a road game played outdoors and in the cold snow. All the while, SEC teams continue playing under ideal conditions all year long and even in the national championship game.

It seems a little fixed to me.

The only way to have a fair and balanced field of competition for a college football national championship playoff is have a field of 11 teams that represent 11 conferences and only conference winners are invited to participate. Period!

The first round of the playoffs could start by mid December. The 6 lowest ranked teams play each other and the three winners then get placed in the final 8 along with the five teams who got a first round bye based on rankings.

On January 1st, you play round two, and four games. The following weekend, four teams and two games. Then, after that, the true national championship game.

How difficult is that?

Instead, we went from "Somebody's Opinion National Championship Game" to "Somebody's Opinion 4-Team Playoff Championship Series".


Here is the reality: This new college football playoff system was put together for one reason and one reason only: To allow as many SEC teams to participate, all other teams and conferences be damned.

I suspected this before the season began, and all the evidence thus far points to this being the case. How else can you explain Ohio State dropping from 5th to 21 after their first loss (and so far, only loss of the season AFTER losing starter Braxton Miller for the entire season) and Alabama dropping only about four spots after their first loss to Ole Miss? And then a week later, Alabama struggled to a 14-13 win over The Razorbacks - after opening the year beating a West Virginia team by a mere 10 points (at home), and a 14 point win against the Volunteers on the road - and they are still in the top5 or 6? With playoff considerations? Really? Seriously? Are you kidding me?

The SEC is sooooooooo overrated. And until they can go out in the cold and snow on the road and win a game over a top 20 team every year like many of the Northern schools have to do, I shall never have any respect for, nor show any respect to, an SEC team.

This explains why I haven't watched a single bowl game or championship game for the past five years. It's all fixed for the SEC teams to win.

As for teams on the West Coast? ..... Well, hell, they all just suck. (Except for Oregon)